Vertigo: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments

Aulia Hafisa
Vertigo illustration (Andrea Piacquadio/Pexels)
Vertigo illustration (Andrea Piacquadio/Pexels) - If you have vertigo, you may feel like your surroundings are moving when they are not. Many people describe vertigo as feeling dizzy, but it's actually a slightly different condition. So, what causes vertigo, and how to deal with it?

Causes of Vertigo

Quoting from the Medina Plus website, the causes of vertigo depend on the type of vertigo itself. There are two types of vertigo, namely peripheral vertigo and central vertigo.

Peripheral vertigo is caused by a problem in the part of the inner ear that controls balance. This area is called the vestibular labyrinth, or semicircular canal. It may also involve the vestibular nerve. It is the nerve between the inner ear and the brainstem.

Peripheral vertigo can be caused by the following

  • Benign positional vertigo (benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, also known as BPPV)
  • Certain drugs such as aminoglycosides, antibiotics, cisplatin, salicylates, or diuretics which are toxic to the inner ear structures
  • Injury (such as a head injury)
  • Inflammation of the vestibular nerve (neuronitis)
  • Irritation and swelling of the inner ear (labyrinthitis)
  • Meniere's disease
  • Pressure on part of the vestibular nerve. It is usually from a noncancerous tumor (meningioma or schwannoma)

Meanwhile, central vertigo is caused by a problem in the brain, usually in the brainstem or the back of the brain (cerebellum). Central vertigo can be caused by the following:

Illustration of vertigo (Andrea Piacquadio/Pexels)
Illustration of vertigo (Andrea Piacquadio/Pexels)
  • Vascular disease
  • Certain drugs such as anticonvulsants, aspirin, and alcohol
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Seizures (rare)
  • Blow
  • Tumors (cancerous or non-cancerous)
  • Vestibular migraine, a type of migraine headache

How to Overcome Vertigo

In general, this case of vertigo occurs spontaneously. In addition, this condition is difficult to predict who is at risk and prevention may not be possible. However, maintaining a healthy lifestyle can help reduce the risk of developing this condition.

Still quoting from the Medina Plus site, there are several things you can do to prevent vertigo, namely as follows:

  • Controlling stroke risk factors can lower the risk of developing central vertigo. These include controlling high blood pressure, diabetes, and cholesterol and avoiding tobacco products.
  • To reduce vertigo symptoms in cases of Meniere's disease, controlling salt intake may help.
  • If a medical professional diagnoses peripheral vertigo, then regularly doing vestibular rehabilitation exercises can help prevent recurring episodes.
  • This is information about the causes and ways to deal with vertigo that you need to know. If you experience vertigo that is very uncomfortable and very disturbing, you should immediately consult a doctor. 

How to treat vertigo?

Some cases of vertigo can heal themselves over time without treatment. However, severe vertigo can last for days. Some people even have series of episodes of vertigo repeated for many months or even years.

There are specific treatments for some causes of vertigo known as Eply manoeuvre, a series of simple head movements to treat BPPV. 

Early stages of vertigo can be treated by consuming medication, such as Prochlorperazine and some antihistamines. 

Many people with vertigo also benefit from vestibular rehabilitation training (VRT), which is a series of exercises for people with dizziness and balance problems. 

Self Care

There are things that you might do yourself to help relieve the symptom of vertigo. Here are the treatments you can do.

  • Do a simple exercise to correct your symptoms
  • Sleep with your head slightly raised on two or more pillows
  • Get up slowly when getting out of bed and sit on the edge of the bed for a minute before standing
  • Avoid bending down to pick up items
  • Avoid extending your neck
  • Move your head carefully and slowly during daily activities

Tag # vertigo # symptoms of vertigo # what causes vertigo # health

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