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How To Find Out Blood Type? Rhesus, Transfusion Rules
A blood type test is done by taking a small blood sample, then the sample will be mixed with blood antigens to determine which blood type you have.
A blood group test is an examination performed to find out a person's blood type. By knowing your own blood type, you can safely donate blood or receive a blood transfusion.
In addition, those of you who are married and planning to have children are also advised to know your own and your partner's blood type and rhesus.
Rhesus (Rh) is a special protein (antigen D) found on the surface of red blood cells. People who are rhesus positive (Rh+), have rhesus antigens. Conversely, rhesus negative (Rh-) does not have rhesus antigens.
Complications can occur when a mother with Rh- carries a fetus with Rh+ blood. Different rhesus conditions can threaten the safety of the fetus.
Types of Blood Groups
Blood type is determined by the type of antigen on the red blood cells. Antigens are substances that help the body identify foreign substances that have the potential to harm the body. When the body detects it, the foreign substance will be destroyed.
There are 4 types of blood groups, namely:
- Blood type A (has antigen A)
- Blood type B (has B antigens)
- AB blood type (has both A and B antigens)
- Blood type O (has neither A nor B antigens)
Blood type is also determined by the Rh factor. The full explanation is as follows:
Rh positive (Rh+)
People with Rh+ have Rh antigens in their red blood cells. Rh+ can receive both Rh+ and Rh-.
Rhesus negative (Rh-)
People with Rh- do not have the Rh antigen. They only accept blood from people with Rh- blood group.
Blood types A, B, AB, O, and Rh are the components that make up your blood group. Overall there are 8 kinds of blood groups, namely; A+, A-, B+, B-, AB+, AB-, O+, and O-.
How to Know Blood Type
To determine blood type, a small blood sample is needed. Medical personnel will use a needle to take a blood sample through the fingertip. After the blood is drawn, the needle puncture site will be covered with a plaster.
Next, the blood sample will be mixed with type A and B antigens. The sample will be checked for clumping of blood cells. If blood cells stick together or clump together, it means that the blood is reacting with one of the antigens.
Then, the liquid and cell portion (plasma) of the blood is mixed with blood types A and B. Blood group A has anti-B antibodies. People with blood type B have anti-A antibodies. Blood type O contains both types of antibodies, while blood type AB has neither.
A rhesus test is usually done at the same time as a blood type test. The method is to mix the D antigen in the blood sample.
These methods can determine your blood type accurately. By knowing the blood type above, you will get blood that matches your blood type if a blood transfusion is needed.
Blood Transfusion Rules
Once you know your blood type, you can safely perform or receive blood transfusions. Blood transfusions cannot be done haphazardly. Receiving blood that does not match your blood type can trigger a dangerous immune reaction.
In the past, blood type O was considered a universal donor, so it could be donated to any blood type. However, this is no longer fully applicable because it is more advisable to get blood transfusions with the exact same group or rhesus.
So, blood type O, especially O+, should only be given in emergency situations, that is, if the patient is life-threatening or the supply of the appropriate blood type is insufficient.
Usually, before a transfusion is carried out, blood samples from the recipient and the donor will be tested to check for compatibility in a process known as crossmatching to prevent serious risk to the donor recipient.
If you have a reaction after receiving a blood transfusion, such as itching, a rash, fever, pain in certain limbs, such as the stomach and back, or blood in the urine, you need to see a doctor immediately for further treatment.